Mammogram – Breast Cancer Risk and Prevention | Screening for Breast cancer
What is breast cancer? What is a mammogram?
In this article, we will discuss mammogram and many more. Nowadays breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and men worldwide. Breast cancer is one kind of disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast.
Ali Meyer, 41, from Oklahoma, originally seemed very relaxed while she is sharing preparations for what she thought would be a routine screening in the year October 2018, but later filmed herself sobbing after her surprise diagnosis.
She had agreed to live-stream her most first-ever mammogram on Facebook to raise awareness of the very very importance of breast cancer screening.
It occurs in both female and male (women and men), although breast cancer in men is very rare.
A mammogram is an x-ray of the breasts. It can very often help to find breast cancer before a lump can be felt in the breast.
World wide almost 4500 women are diagnosed with breast cancer every year. It is the most leading cancer type in women in all European countries.
You know that Female breast cancer is the most common and at the highest ratio cancer in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. It is the leading you or cause of cancer deaths.
Female breast cancer
The high mortality-to-incidence ratio in the regions is associated with mainly the high proportion of advanced-stage diagnosis, and also to inadequate access to health care.
In this study, we aimed to systematically review the proportion of advanced stage (III-IV) at diagnosis (pas) and the five-year stage-specific survival estimates of breast cancer in LAC countries.
The exterior of both male and female chests are basically the same, however, the size, shape, and function of breasts vary significantly between the sexes.
Male breast also has a nipple and an areola (the darker pigmented circle around the nipple), but men lack the mammary glands and ducts necessary to produce milk.
Unlike women, a typical male that does not have extensive big fat deposits on his chest – in a woman, these protect the mammary glands. Instead, the shape of a man’s chest is determined by the muscles underneath the skin.
Although atypical, men can develop large mammary glands that result in breast enlargement. This condition is known as gynecomastia.
It is more common in adolescent boys but typically disappears after puberty.
Big Incidence of Breast Cancer in Men in South Africa
According to the National Cancer Registry (2014), the following cases of Breast Cancer in Men was histologically diagnosed in 2014. Histologically diagnosed means that a sample of tissue (biopsy) was forwarded to an approved laboratory where a specially trained pathologist confirmed a diagnosis of cancer:
Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men
Men diagnosed with male breast cancer at an early or initial stage have a good chance for a cure. However, many men delay seeing a doctor when they notice unusual signs or symptoms, such as a breast lump.
For this reason and because of this relaxing reason, many male breast cancers are diagnosed when the disease is more advanced. Main Factors that increase the risk of male breast cancer include:
Older age: Breast cancer is most common in men ages 40 to 80. About 1 in 5 men with breast cancer (20%) have a close relative who has also had breast cancer.
The genes store the biological information inherited from parents. The genes most commonly linked to an increased very fast risk of breast cancer in families are BRCA1 and BRCA2.
Men in families with the BRCA2 gene are more likely to develop breast cancer than men in BRCA1 families. It is thought that the BRCA2 gene may cause up to 1 in 10 breast cancers in men (10%).
Exposure to estrogen: If one takes estrogen-related drugs, such as those used as part of sex reassignment surgery, the risk of breast cancer is increased. For prostate cancer, there is an Estrogen drug that may also be used in hormone therapy. Although all men have estrogen in their bodies, obesity, cirrhosis (liver disease) and Klinefelter’s syndrome (a genetic disorder) increase estrogen levels.
Family history of breast cancer
Family history of breast cancer: If one has a close family member with breast cancer, there is a greater chance of developing the disease. If a first-degree relative—their mother, father, brother, sister, children(all the blood relation)—has breast cancer, men are also at slightly higher risk to develop the disease themselves also.
Men who have a BRCA mutation (a mutation or change in a gene that predisposes them to breast cancer) are at a very big and greater risk. Although their chance of developing breast cancer is still very low (only about 5% to 6%), men with a mutation in BRCA2 have a 100-fold greater risk of developing breast cancer in men or than men in the general population.
The word cancer comes from Latin and means crab because as the tumor grows into adjacent tissue, it looks like the shape of the crustacean. Breast cancer is a disease caused by an abnormal growth of breast cells.
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women worldwide and in Brazil, after non-melanoma skin cancer, accounting for about 25% of new cases each year.
Male breast cancer risk
Male breast cancer is considered a rare disease, representing 0.2% of all cancers, 1% of breast cancers and 0.2% of all malignant tumors in men, and it is responsible for 0.1% of male cancer deaths. The male to female ratio is 1:100, and the disease occurs between 59 and 64 years of age.
However, statistics indicate an increased incidence in both developed and developing countries. The incidence of male breast cancer has increased significantly from 0.86 to 1.06 per 100,000 men over the past 26 years.
Due to the rarity of this pathology, the etiology of male breast cancer is little known. Among the main risk factors cited in the literature is family history with first-degree relatives 20% of the time.
Breast cancer risk
Genetic predisposition is associated with breast cancer, which can increase the risk of developing the disease by 2.5 times. Mutations in the early onset breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) gene are related to some cases, but the link between mutations in the breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) gene and male breast cancer is stronger.
Most histological subtypes seen in women are also present in men, except the lobular type, which is very rare.
In the literature, there are reports that exposure to electromagnetic fields results in the formation of mammary tumors in animals due to an inhibitory effect on the pineal gland, with a decrease in melatonin.
Studies have shown an increased risk in this situation but have not clearly defined the exposure time required6,7. The clinical picture most often begins insidiously, with thickening of mammary glandular tissue, usually in the retro areolar region.
Breast Cancer Symptoms
There is also skin retraction, presence of a solid lump, often bloody papillary discharge and, later, ulcer. The most common symptoms in male breast cancer patients are subareolar painless nodule, nipple retraction, and nipple bleeding.
The diagnosis of breast cancer in males occurs later compared to females. In men, it occurs at age 60, whereas in women, it is detected on average 10 years earlier. This delay in diagnosis leads to advanced cases of the disease, due to a lack of knowledge of the problem by the patient and often by the doctor.
For breast cancer in men, the same treatment established for women is recommended: surgical treatment, after the use or not of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and particularly hormone therapy.
Signs of Breast Cancer – Mammogram
- How do I find breast cancer early?
- Some women at very high risk for breast cancer
All women or ladies and girls too should talk to a doctor about the known pros, cons, and possible harms linked to breast cancer screening. It is very important for the young generation in the future.
Some women at very high risk for Breast Cancer because of their family history, a genetic tendency, or other factors – may need to have an MRI along with their mammograms. Talk to your doctor about your sensitive risk for breast cancer and the best screening plan for you.
If your doctor hasn’t told you about a mammogram, it doesn’t mean you don’t need one. Ask about it yourself. Insist on getting the care you deserve!
If your doctor hasn’t told you about a mammogram, it doesn’t mean you don’t need one. Ask about it yourself. Insist on getting the care you deserve!
Breast Cancer Prevention
Breast cancer is essentially similar in the two sexes and their treatment is similar as well, but the survival rate in male patients is lower.
The increasing incidence of cancer cases in most parts of the world means that several countries are increasingly looking to adopt effective prevention measures in primary care (related to early diagnosis) to reduce the number of new cases, and also to take measures to control and reduce mortality rates.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 40% of cancer deaths can be prevented, which makes prevention strategies an important component of any cancer control plan.
Another aspect that deserves careful attention concerns the analyses and actions carried out in low- and middle-income countries since according to GLOBOCAN data through the WHO Cancer Control Program, more than 70% of breast cancer deaths occur in these countries.
In Brazil, the National Cancer Institute José Alencar Gomes da Silva (INCA) estimated for the biennium 2018–2019 600,000 new cases of cancer each year. According to this institute, 191.78/100,000 new cases are expected for women. Of these, the most frequent is breast cancer, with 59,700 new cases each year.
Similarly, In the North region, 1,730 new cases of breast cancer are estimated per year2. Since there have been no previously reported studies on breast cancer in men in the state of Amazonas, we believe that the present research may make a valuable contribution.
Breast Cancer Treatment
The main treatment described in all studies was surgery, and modified radical mastectomy appeared as the most common procedure. In this study, patients underwent surgery in 88.23% (n = 15) of cases.
In two cases (11.77%), no surgery was performed. In one of those cases in which surgery was not performed, the cancer was already at an advanced stage and there were lung and bone metastases.
These are data similar to those of American studies, showing the similarity to our situation. Post-surgery radiotherapy was performed in only 58.82% of cases.
The reasons for no radiotherapy were not noted in the medical records. In 47.05% of cases, the patients received systemic treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy, and 58.82% were treated with tamoxifen since they showed hormone-positive receptors
Early detection is especially critical with breast cancer. Breast cancer has no symptoms in its early, most treatable stages.
Undergoing regular screenings can spot cancer before symptoms appear, at which point treatment may be less invasive and more effective.
According to the American Cancer Society, even women with no personal or family history should schedule an annual mammogram; most women 55 and older can switch to a mammogram every other year, or they can choose to continue yearly mammograms based on their doctor’s recommendation.
What is a mammogram?
A mammogram is an x-ray of the breasts. It can often help find breast cancer before a lump can be felt in the breast.
There are many common questions that women have about very dangerous breast cancer and mammograms. What if I feel or see something on my breast that worries me?
If you find a lump on the breast, see any dimpling or puckering of the skin, or notice any new change in the way your breasts feel or look(very big or small), see a doctor right away. It probably is not cancer, but do yourself a favor and have it checked out.
Some women say that no one in my family has ever had breast cancer or breast-related diseases, so do I really need to be screened? Yes…
Yes. Your risk is very big or greater if a close relative has had breast cancer. If I’m going to get breast cancer, there’s nothing I can do about it.
Yeah, there is. We can’t stop all breast cancers from all women in the world, but we know that finding cancer when it’s small and has not spread gives a woman the best chance of beating this disease very fast.
A mammogram can often help find a tumor before you can feel it. If a small lump is found while it’s still small and only in the breast, a woman has more treatment choices for that. Very early detection means that a woman’s chances for saving her breast are a very better way, and treatment will almost always have fewer side effects.
Mammograms cost a lot. How can I afford one?
Medicare, Medicaid, and almost all insurance plans cover mammograms. There are some low-cost mammogram programs, too.
In our are or neal of us, some doctors, hospitals, or clinics also may lower their fees for women, who can’t afford the usual charge for breast cancer treatment. You can call the American Cancer Society at 1-800-227-2345 to learn more about very low-cost programs where you live or near you.
Mammograms are x-rays. Are they safe?
Hence, throughout the years, both the machines and how mammograms are done have perfectly and greatly improved. Today, the level of radiation is very very low and the benefits of mammograms outweigh the risk for breast cancer treatment.
What’s it like to get a mammogram? Does it hurt? Is it embarrassing?
What should you do when you get a mammogram? you just stand beside the machine, and a specially trained technologist helps place your breast(no matter how big or small your breast) on a plastic plate itself.
A second one or second plastic plate is put on top(it means your breast place between the two plats), and for a few seconds, the top plate is pushed down and flattens the breast to get a very good, perfect and clear picture.
There are two pictures usually are taken of each breast by that machine. Many women feel some discomfort while treatment. Tell the technologist very frankly if you have pain during treatment or after treatment.
A mammogram takes about 15 minutes. But the squeezing only lasts a short time. A specialist for the treatment of breast cancer, called a radiologist, will look at the mammogram to see if there are any areas of concern for breast cancer.
If you do not hear from your health care provider or doctor within 10 days, do not assume that your mammogram was normal and no need to worry. Immediately call your provider or the facility where the mammogram was done.
Get regular mammograms
Regular breast cancer screening with mammograms can often help to find breast cancer early – when it is small and has not spread.
As a result, This is when there are more treatment choices and treatment works best. You need to know about mammograms!
Here are awesome and effective breast cancer screening steps you may be willing to take. They could save your life!
- Yes, I will call the American Cancer Society at 1-800-227-2345 or go to the online with this URL www.cancer.org to find out more about mammograms and breast cancer.
- I will ask my doctor or nurse or family doctor how to get a mammogram.
- Yeah, I will schedule my mammogram.
- Now, I will call my doctor if I don’t get the results of my mammogram.
Dear, readers if you still have any question in your mind then please do comment and ask. We will do research regarding your query and post a new article very soon. 🙂