A urinary tract infection (UTI) is actually an infection in any part of your urinary system or an infection from microbes. Your urinary tract is made up of actually several parts like your kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. A UTI can happen anywhere in the urinary tract of your body.
In this article, we are going to discuss the causes of Urinary Tract Infection and urinary tract infection in children, urine infection means? Why frequent urination? how do you get a UTI? How to do UTI proper treatment, what are the actual symptoms of urinary infection? Infection in the urine.
Women have actually more risk of developing a UTI than men. So how does a woman get a urinary tract infection? Urinary Tract Infection Of Men, what urinary infection meaning? Here all the things we are going to discuss in this article.
Most urinary infections actually involve the lower urinary tract like the bladder and the urethra. What causes a UTI in women/females? OR causes of urinary tract infection, of course, you have one common question, why do I keep getting urinary tract infections? What are the actual signs of urinary tract infection, Best antibiotics for urinary tract infection? Here, there are some bacteria that can cause urinary tract infections with fungal.
In addition here we will discuss effective symptoms of infection in urine, what are the symptoms of UTI?
How Do You Get Urinary Tract Infection?
Hey everyone, I’m going to be doing an in-cooked review over a urinary tract infection in this article, let’s get started. Urine Infection Means? What is a urinary tract infection? It is an infection film within the urinary system. So what actual structures are included in the urinary system.
What A UTI Infection?
Well, we have two kidneys we have a right kidney in the left kidney and coming out of the kidneys which help drain. The urine is your ureters and the ureter is attached to the bladder and then the urine comes out of the urethra.
Lower UTI Symptoms
Now you can have a urinary tract infection(Urine Infection Means) in the lower part of the upper part or both. Typically what happens is that a UTI census starts in the lower part of the system and can my greatest way upward.
Lower UTI Symptoms: So with the lower, you can have an infection of just the urethra which would be considered urethritis or the bladder called cystitis.
Now with the upper system, the ureters can be infected and typically if they’re infected you probably either have a lower urinary tract infection(Lower UTI Symptoms) or an upper or both and it’s called ureter Ida.
Then you can also have where the kidneys are infected and it’s referred to as pyelonephritis. If the kidneys get infected this is not good because the kidneys are connected to our circulation. So if they get infected that infection whatever present can easily migrate into that circulation goes to the heart and then we can get septic shock and the patient can die.
So we really really got to be careful and assess appropriately to make sure not spread to the kidney.
Symptoms Of Urinary Tract Infection In Women
Urinary tract infections tend to affect women more than men. Why? well really the reason why is the female anatomy in a woman the urethra tends to be shorter than the males we throw. So it makes it easier for bacteria to migrate up through that urethra and make their way to the bladder.
- Urinary Tract Infection In Women
- Urinary Infection In Women
- Another thing is the close proximity between the rectum and the urethra making it easier for bacteria just to migrate over there especially.
If the woman is not wiping properly like from front to back and fed they’re wiping back to front or wearing tight underwear things like that just make it easier for specifically or exactly a cold to travel to that your referent. In fact the woman with a urinary tract infection.
What are causes Of UTI In Women
Now let’s look at how urine flows and the defense system set in place in your urinary tract that really helps prevent urinary tract infections. Because here in a second when we go over the causes and it will make more sense and widest if it causes cause and the patient’s increased risk of UTI because you’re seeing a breakdown in these defense systems.
So first how does urine normally slow. Okay, we know that their kidneys filter our blood and the nephron plays a huge role in this. It creates a substance called filtrate which will lead and the nephron as urine.
Urine will be produced and it will leave at the renal papilla from that nestling. It will go down through the major tail acts out through the renal pelvis down through the ureters and your ureters connect to your bladder.
How Do You Get a UTI? : What’s neat about the ureters is that you have these one-way valves that prevent urine from in the bladder and back climbing into that ureter.
So we don’t want that to happen because if that happens we have a higher risk of urinary tract infection that you’re in a sense of staying stagnant and that’s a good medium for bacterial growth.
What Does a UTI Feel Like?
Do one-way valves are called your toe vesicle valves and then the urine sessions in the bladder which is stored and once your bladder becomes really full you’ll feel that urge to void? You will actually void down through the urethra exits there.
Now let’s look at our defense system. Okay, the first defense system is really the physiology of how urine drains out of the kidneys because it’s raised in a downward motion. It doesn’t back slow because if we have backflow of urine we have beautiful conditions for a urinary tract infection.
So what structures really help us keep that urine flowing downward because if they get messed up then we’re going to have that increased risk of urine back flowing.
The first thing which we sort of talked about is those of your toe vesicle valve and in one condition that we’re going to talk about. These valves are messed up there causing reflux of urine to go backflow into the ureters, into the kidney. So some conditions can cause issues with those vows. Another thing is the muscles of the bladder.
Your bladder help squeezes out that year and completely we don’t want to have urinary retention which is one of the reasons a person can get a urinary tract infection.
However over time like with patients who have diabetes or in patients who are really immobile or who are actually able to get up and go to the bathroom. So they have a distended bladder over time those muscles become weak which can lead to the bladder muscles not working properly.
Another thing that helps keep that your employment downward is the pressure created by the urine in the bladder. All that urine in there creates pressure which in a sense sucks that bladder.
It sucks that urine down through the system with the pressure through the ureters and helps the person get rid of the urine.
Now another defense system is really the urine itself urine. Typically is sterile and it has these antiseptic properties to it that help prevent germs from sticking to the lining like the lining of the bladder wall. What way the role in that is the pH of the urine. We like acidic urine and urea concentration.
However, with some conditions like diabetes, we can have issues where the urine has changed. Because remember with diabetes one of the reasons we can find out a person s IVs is when we check their urine.
There’s leaking glucose in their urine and normally in the nephron specifically the proximal convoluted tubule 100% of the glucose is normally reabsorbed.
How Do You Get A UTI By Bacteria?
However, with diabetes glucose, there’s too much. So it’s leaking into that urine and that provides a beautiful medium for bacteria to grow for them to just flourish where normally if they had a better pH they wouldn’t have that.
Now also your urine I mean your bladder the lining within the bladder has your immune system cells which helps fight bacteria. So bacteria do tend to get in there the immune system will see that and attack that.
- How Do You Get A UTI By Bacteria?
- How Do You Get A UTI By Bacteria?
- However whenever you have a person who has a suppressed immune system. They are at risk for having bacteria continue to grow to that immune system not attacking that germ.
Now another defense system this is specifically in the mouth is the prostate gland.
- The Prostate Gland Secretes
- This fluid has antimicrobial properties to it and it helps. Coster, you refer so a bacteria gets in there. That fluid from the prostate gland is in there it can help kill that bacteria.
However, whenever you have an enlarged prostate it is not secreting fluid properly. It’s squeezing that your refer shut so you’re going to have backflow of urine and you’re not going to have that antimicrobial fluid help ward off that infection. In a defense system specifically in women is the normal flora found in the vagina.
Now, this is really due to Kiri called black Toback Phillip. It helps keep the environment acidic because the vagina and the urethra are close together whenever though lactobacillus is there. If I change from the rectum ecoli did migrate upward and that like Toback Scylla can help fight that infection due to the acidic condition because the bacteria will not live. So that is another defense system that the body has.
Causes Of Urinary Tract Infection
Now let’s detailed look at the causes of urinary tract infection most common types of urinary tract infection (UTI) tend to be bacterial. Actually, most common bacteria tend to be ecoli which has probably come from the GI system.
So for testing purposes, I would try to remember these causes because test questions like to ask you out of all the patients which patient is most at risk for urinary tract infection. Okay so to help us remember to let’s remember the pneumonic hard to avoid. Because it’s UTIs and they have difficulty pain.
The first one is H for hormone changes and this can be with pregnancy menopause birth control. Why? what is this do and it changes the normal flora in the body what can happen?
How Urinary Tract Infection Is Caused
Remember whenever we’re talking about one of those defense systems and is that lactobacillus. Wherever you throw off the hormones that flora changes down there and bacteria can get in there and cause an infection. So anytime you’re messing with hormones. Your risk another one is an antibiotic.
Again this just changes that normal flora kills all the good bacteria ours for renal stones. What happens is that those renal stones get in there and they prevent that urine from draining and what could happen is that a stone can form and it can form within the kidney. You can have it maybe in the K lacks the kidney or stuck in the pelvis of the kidney or the upper part of the ureter.
What happens is that urine will not drain out of that kidney it will stay stagnant in there. This can lead to a urinary tract infection d for diabetes. With diabetics, they tend to have compromised circulation. They have a decreased immune system response.
So bacteria gets in there. They don’t attack it as efficiently as they should and they tend to have if it’s not controlled diabetes. So, they can have glucose in the urine which is a great environment for bacteria to grow.
They tend to have that urinary retention because the nerves aren’t working properly to let them know hey I need to empty my bladder. Those muscles become weak due to those that overextended bladder over time.
So they are at risk for diabetes another thing is toiletries t4 toiletries. This is because tool trees like taking excessive bubble bath using that soap overtime are coming in contact with the urethra can cause irritation also powders perfume tampons Senate or not scented.
Especially scented and sanitary pads over a woman during this ministration. If she’s having a lot of recurrent UTIs you don’t let her know not to use scented tampons or sanitary pads and to avoid tampons because that can cause urinary tract infection to increase our risk.
Symptoms Of UTI In Male
Okay, for obstructive prostatic hypertrophy and this is seen and males typically who have BPH and what happens with this is that they get urinary retention.
What happens is that prostate enlarges and it squeezes or compresses the urethra urine can’t get out. So you get urinary retention and also that the prostate gland isn’t able to secrete that antimicrobial fluid properly.
So you lose the fighting power of that fluid to fight off infection as well next vesicle ureteral reflex also called VUR and this tends to happen in the pediatric population.
It’s a congenital defect and what’s happening is that urine is back flowing from that bladder to the kidneys because of a valve defect. Remember we have those one-way valves called euro vesicular valves and they are not closing properly and they are allowing your in to back up to the through those your returns into the kidneys.
These kids or children will have recurrent constant infections and when they go in they look and they see that they have issues with their vows.
Next Oh for overextended bladder and this is where the bladder is not in feed whenever it needs to be empty. Patients who are at high risk for this are patients who are on mobile and can’t get up, they can’t move.
So they just sat there with the overextended bladder. This weakens those bladder muscles which will lead to urinary retention.
- Symptoms Of UTI
- Symptoms Of UTI In Male
- Whenever they do get a void, they keep some that urine in there another person at risk for that are nurses and because we tend not to go to the bathroom when we need to because we’re going to get this done, we’re going to get that done.
We tend to some nurses o struggle with an overextended bladder so always into your bladder. Next, we have several of those the first is an indwelling catheter like a Foley catheter and if you’ve ever worked in a hospital for any time.
You’re always hearing get that Foley catheter out because that is just an endurance way for bacteria to get in and causing urinary tract infection. So we want to remove those Foleys as soon as possible.
Urinary tract infection urinating after sexual intercourse: The other eye invasive procedures intercourse sexual intercourse. Especially spermicide there use and women are definitely at risk for this just because of that short urethra.
So voiding after sex is very important and another thing is Rd for the decreased immune system and that the immune system just isn’t able to fight off infection. They are really at risk for developing your viral and you’re fungal of origins of the urinary tract infection.
Urinary Tract Infection in Children
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in kids/Children. UTI happens when bacteria (germs) get into the bladder or kidneys of that child or kids.
A baby with a UTI(UTI causes) may have a fever, throw up, or be fussy. Some of these kids may have a fever, have pain when peeing, need to pee a lot, or have lower belly pain. Kids with UTIs need to see a doctor as soon as possible fast.
These dangerous infections will not get better on their own. Nowadays UTIs are really easy to treat and usually perfectly clear up in a week.
Antibiotics For Children or Baby
Taking antibiotics regularly will kill the germs and helps kids get well again. To be sure that antibiotics work, you must give all the prescribed doses regularly — even when your child or baby starts feeling better.
Now let’s look at how a urinary tract infection is diagnosed because as a nurse you need to be familiar with tests the physician may order because you’re going to be playing a role in collecting some of these specimens.
Okay so the biggest thing that’s an order to help diagnose a UTI is a urinalysis also called a UA. It’s going to check for white blood cells and bacteria and your role as the nurse is to collect this via the clean cache method. So you’re going to either be doing this or the patient.
So you’ll want to educate them on how to do this and this method helps us prevent contaminating that specimen which could give us a false positive.
Okay, when you’re collecting a UA it’s best to collect when the bladder has been full for about two to three hours. So the urine is concentrated not diluted and what the patient will do or you’ll do is that you will why with an antiseptic wipe.
So you will clean the area then you will have the patient void a small amount in the toilet. Then they will stop in and midstream they’re going to void until it’s halfway full in that cup and they’ll want to hold the cup at least a few inches away from the urethra. So and it doesn’t get contaminated.
Now sometimes patients have Foley catheters. So how would you collect your analysis from a Foley? Well on the Foley and close to where the Foley is inserted just a little bit down the tubing is an access port and on this port, you can clean the poor with an antiseptic cleanser.
Then use a needleless syringe and it will just screw on the access port and you can withdraw some urine that you need and put it in the cup.
Sometimes there’s not urine freely draining from there. So you can clamp the tubing to collect some of the urine. However you never ever want to collect the specimen from the collection bag.
Because sometimes there are a bacteria present in there. It’s not a good indicator if the patient has a urinary tract infection.
How UTI Is Caused?
Always use the access port. Another test order is called a urine culture. Sometimes a lot of times a UA and a urine culture will be ordered together and this will assess the type of bacteria. If it’s caused by bacteria that is growing in the urine.
So they can order antibiotics appropriately to treat the specific bacteria. However, it depends on your lab but it takes about two days to receive that result back.
Now a typical question that likes to pop out the law is falling patient in order to start IV antibiotic therapy or Pio antibiotic therapy who has a UTI. The physician has also ordered or urine culture and how will you proceed with following Alexei’s orders.
You want to remember, you want to collect your urine culture first before you even give that antibiotic because giving that antibiotic if you gave the antibiotics first it would start fighting the infection.
You wouldn’t be able to properly culture that urine. So always do the urine culture first then give the antibiotic.
Okay another test is called a sauce Katti and that’s where they insert a scope and they go down and they look inside the bladder and the urethra. This is ordered most commonly for people who have this area current and urinary tract infections.
They want to see what’s going on is there a structure issue in there a blockage something like that.
What Are The Symptoms Of Urinary Tract Infection?
Now let’s dive in or look at actual signs and symptoms of UTI. what is the patient going to report to you? A patient may have pain when voiding and can be described as a burning sensation whenever the stream starts.
When they’re boarding they may also have a persistent need to avoid this really intense urge. They’ve got to go pee but whenever they do pee it’s just really small amounts or there’s nothing that comes out at all that’s because that bladder is irritated not yours.
We throw it’s really inflamed the urine will be odorous and this is definitely something that you will be able to smell and you will know it’s there it’s not just a faint smell it’s right in your face there the urine will appear dark and cloudy you won’t be that nice light yellow color also.
Signs Of UTI In Women
During your assessment, they will have pain with what’s called the cost over tee-ball angle and this is known as CVA ten Ernest. This is most commonly associated with a kidney infection and this is how you would assess for CVA tenderness.
So what you will do is that you will find where the last rib on the back is which is your 12th rib and you will find the spine and you’re going to go at the angle and the angle is below the 12th rib and in between the spine.
This is about where your left kidney is located and about where your right kidney is located. So then you’re going to take your hand, you’re just going to place it over there. You’re going to stomp the area with your fist, you’re going to make this fist and then you’re just going to thump it.
We’re wondering if the patient has pain whenever we do this the high pressure but the pain is what we’re looking for. So like that and then go to the other side and test it and they have pain that could indicate again a kidney infection.
Is A Urinary Tract Infection Painful?
The feeling of the bladder and the urethra and can be very very painful to a patient who has a UTI and also they will have a fever and on that urinalysis they can have increased white blood cells.
Now one thing I really want to point out because this is another thing that tests love to ask about urinary tract infection. Okay in your geriatric population they can not have these typical signs of UTI in women and symptoms like a fever.
The persistent need for a boy and maybe even any pain with pain and what they tend to experience is all of a sudden. They were who they were alert and oriented but now they’re confused they don’t know where they are? They’re really agitated? and they are falling a lot.
Patients really didn’t know what it was a doctor suspected urinary tract infection because all of a sudden they had mental status changes but really as turns out had a urinary tract infection got treated for it and came back to normal.
Who are elderly not just for testing purposes but in the hospital because you will definitely encounter this now let’s look at the nursing intervention that you’re going to do for a patient with a urinary tract infection.
Information is sure to really pay attention to those education pieces because include because the in-place exam and your nursing lecture exams like to ask questions about how you’re going to educate the patient some things you should watch out for and being like that. What we’re really doing is that we are going to do the following we’re going to assess that patient for signs and symptoms of a urinary tract infection because really all patients are at risk for this mister immune system suppressed they have diabetes things like that so we want to catch this early.
So they can get treatment fast before it spreads to the kidneys and eventually the systemic circulation. We want to maintain dirt and monitor their fluid status look at those eyes and O’s and making sure that their urine output is at least 30 CC’s an hour that they’re putting out that good amount of urine.
Because if they’re not chances are they could be going into renal failure may be the UTI has progressed that far also. We’re going to help them control their pain because with the UTI patients will have excruciating pain especially those spasms and cramping pain.
So we’ll help them with not only formal logical medicine or medicines but norm pharmacological techniques as well which we’ll go over in a second and we’ll administer medications purposes or like the pain relievers the antibiotics.
We’re going to really be educating our patients like and how to prevent this from happening again and how to take treatment(UTI treatment), how to take those antibiotics and monitor yourself for urinary tract infection things like that we’re going to be monitoring them for complications again it’s gone and they’re becoming SiC may be treatment smart working.
We want to make sure that they’re not entering into that and we’re going to collect and monitor their labs like that your analysis that you’re in culture. If anything comes back abnormal like there are white blood cells or bacteria present in that you need to let the physician know so they can order UTI treatment.
Now typically whenever a patient has a Foley catheter the physician will order you to remove it if a urinary tract infection is present always check with the position.
If they want you to remove that because you’ll need an order for that because again Foley catheter is a great entrance for bacteria and some things I see is that whenever a patient has a Foley catheter and they develop a urinary tract infection they made for a complaint of the need to void even though they have this catheter that’s draining the urine.
So if it’s not pink somewhere the tubing is not kinked somewhere the bladder may be irritated. Irritating the urethra may be irritating they may have an infection.
Another thing remembers with the urine culture you want to collect that first and then start the antibiotics.
Always remember that we’ll be encouraging at least two and a half to three liters of fluid per day as long as they don’t have any contraindications whatever the physician orders. Why do we want them to take in this much fluid?
Well, number one we want the urinary system to be flushing itself getting that bacteria out there on antibiotics. It’s fighting it but we want it out and we want to keep the urine diluted a lot of times.
Antibiotics that are typically prescribed for urinary tract infection are a group of drugs called solanum eyes Bactrim is I’m a popular one and the thing with Bactrim is that if the urine is concentrated they can develop what’s called crystal urea where they develop these little crystals in their urine.
This will not happen if the urine is diluted it decreases the chances. So you want to really tell them to consume a lot of food and let the patient know that this can possibly happen.
So this is an incentive, why you need to consume good amounts of fluid and some other things that I want to point out about the back trim are that with antibiotics. We really want to try to give these at the same time every day.
So tell the patient to taste this at the same time every day. Why? because we want to keep that blood level constant. So that antibiotics can keep working.
We don’t want those blood levels to dip of the antibiotics and because it won’t fight as fast then I’m wanting to always take all the antibiotics don’t just quit taking them because of urinary tract infection.
You think it’s gone because this increases the resistance of the bacteria to the antibiotics, always take all the antibiotics.
Side Effect Of Urinary Tract Infection
Another thing we’re going to be doing is encouraging the patient to avoid every two to three hours helping them go every 2-3 hours to keep that system flush.
We don’t want to have an overextended bladder keeping that urine in there with the pain and non-pharmacological. What we could do is a warm fist bath to help that urethra is really inflamed which can help ease that or heating pad another thing. I’m physicians sometimes ordered a drug called perineum also called Panozzo priding. Sometimes your staff and what this is is this is like an analgesic.
It will help coat the bladder and the urethra and it will provide release decrease that burning urine the spasms things like that but one thing you have to watch with this. It’s a normal side effect of UTI is the orange-colored urine and it’s almost the same color as what this market looks like it can be a little reddish tint but these pencil arm patients whenever they go to void in the commode. Because it’s just this really bright orange.
So that is a normal side effect Of UTI. If you see that as a nurse know that it’s normal.
UTI Symptoms For Female
UTI Symptoms For Female: Okay, some education pieces for your patients and preventing urinary tract infections again you take all those antibiotics female patients need to wipe from front to back very crucial.
Urinary tract infection urinating after sexual intercourse
If they wipe from back to front they’ll introduce that bacteria in the rectum to the urethra and after sexual intercourse. It’s very important to void to clear out that urethra. They also need to avoid wearing any tight underwear and it’s best to wear loose cotton underwear. Void bubble bath perfume sprays powders.
This irritates the urethra and your administration body tampons and is sure to change those sanitary pads all since and to avoid caffeine and alcohol because these products actually irritate the bladder and the urethra and to void every two to three hours again just to keep that urinary system flush.
I hope you perfectly understand the causes of Urinary Tract Infection, Frequent urination, How do you get a UTI? Now you know how to do proper UTI treatment and what are the symptoms of urinary infection. Infection in the urine.
Now you know women have more risk of developing a UTI than are men and how does a woman get a urinary tract infection. So be careful my dear women, ladies, and girls. Urinary Tract Infection Of Men.
After reading this article now you can easily identify the causes of Causes Urinary Tract infections and understand why do I keep getting urinary tract infections, urinary tract infection signs, Antibiotics For urinary tract infections and much more you have rad.
So that wraps up this article on UTIs. Thank you so much for visiting here, don’t forget to subscribe or sign up for a more interesting post.